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DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux

On this text we’ll concentrate on DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux briefly. As quickly as an ethical hacker has acknowledged targets on-line presence and embrace objects of curiosity. Subsequent step is to ascertain the IP addresses and routes to the purpose. DNS reconnaissance refers to determining proprietor of a selected space or assortment of IP addresses (whois-kind knowledge), DNS knowledge defining the exact domains and IP addresses assigned to the purpose and the route between the penetration tester or ethical hacker and the final word purpose.

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This form of knowledge gathering is semi-energetic. Because of a couple of of the information is accessible from freely on the market open sources and some knowledge is accessible from third occasions as an illustration DNS registrars. Though the registrar might purchase IP addresses and information relating to requests made by the penetration tester, it is hardly supplied to the tip purpose/client. Largely data that would presumably be immediately monitored by the purpose, equal to DNS server logs under no circumstances reviewed or retained. Because of the info needed could possibly be queried using a defined systematic and methodical technique, its assortment could possibly be automated.

DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux

WHOIS for DNS Reconnaissance

First step in studying/exploring the IP deal with space is to find out addresses given to concentrate on website online. This job can be achieved by whois command. This permits ethical hackers to query databases who retailer knowledge on an internet site determine or IP deal with. This depend on the queried database, response to a whois request current names, bodily addresses along with IP addresses, DNS server names and lots of others.

Following are some choices of WHOIS Query:

  • It helps a pathway for social engineering assault in opposition to location or people acknowledged throughout the query.

  • Location identification for a bodily assault.

  • Cellphone numbers identification that may be utilized for a wrestle dialing assault, or to conduct a social engineering assault.

  • It conducts recursive searches to search out totally different domains hosted on similar server. In the event that they're insecure, an attacker can take profit by exploiting them to attain administrative entry to server after which compromise purpose server.

  • Some circumstances happen the place the realm goes to expire, an attacker can seize the realm and create a clone website online to compromise friends who suppose they're on distinctive website online.

  • An attacker will favor to utilize the authoritative DNS servers, which are the info for lookups of that space, to facilitate DNS reconnaissance.

Why DNS Reconnaissance is crucial?

DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux make you additional skillful and surroundings pleasant for superior penetration testing.  Penetration testers use the DNS knowledge throughout the following strategies:

  • With the help of brute-power assaults, penetration testers decide new domains associated to the purpose.

  • Sometimes DNS server is configured to permit a zone change to any requester, which is ready to current hostnames and IP addresses of Net-accessible strategies, make it informal to ascertain potential targets. If the purpose does not segregate public (exterior) DNS knowledge from private (inside) DNS data, a zone change could disclose the hostnames and IP addresses of inside devices. Most IDS and IPS packages will set off an alarm if a zone change request is triggered.

  • Discovering firms that could possibly be vulnerable as an illustration, FTP or distant administration panels and distant entry.

  • Used to go looking out misconfigured or unpatched servers (dbase.check out.purpose.com).

  • Service knowledge (SRV), current data on service, transport, port and order of significance for firms. This may occasionally allow an pentester to deduce the software program program.

  • Space Keys Acknowledged Mail (DKIM) and Sender Protection Framework (SPF) data are used to handle spam e-mails. If these knowledge are acknowledged, the attacker is conscious of that they are additional security conscious than most organizations and this may occasionally sometimes have an effect on phishing and totally different social engineering assaults.

Every Dwelling home windows and Unix OS assist basic command-line devices akin to nslookup, and Unix strategies help additional command-line selections similar to dig. Awkwardly, these directions usually interrogate one server at a time, and require interactive responses to be environment friendly.

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Kali Linux consists of numerous devices used to query DNS knowledge for a specific purpose that lastly help in DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux. The chosen software program ought to put up the Net Protocol mannequin which is used for communications with the purpose—IPv4 or IPv6. Whereas penetration testing, skilled ethical hackers use fierce to confirm that every one doable targets have been acknowledged and run at least two full devices like dnsenum and dnsrecon to generate the utmost amount of data and help in cross validation.


DNSrecon used to generate a daily DNS doc search and a search that is explicit for SRV knowledge and a very useful gizmo for DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux. You presumably can see this in following screenshot:

This machine permits the ethical hackers to accumulate knowledge by using Sender Protection Framework (SPF), and the IP deal with ranges in use. This knowledge accommodates SOA file, mail exchanger (MX) hosts, servers sending e-mails title servers (NS) and lots of others.

In IPv6, the availability and trip spot addresses are 128 bits in measurement, yielding 2128 doable addresses, that is 340 undecillionth addresses. Kali consists of numerous devices developed to profit from IPv6 (most full scanners, just like nmap, now help IPv6), a couple of of which are as follows; devices which may be particular to IPv6 have been largely derived from the THC-IPv6 Assault Toolkit.

  • dnsdict6: Enumerates subdomains to accumulate IPv4 and IPv6 addresses (if present) using a brute drive search based totally on a supplied dictionary file or its private inside itemizing.

  • dnsrevenum6: Performs reverse DNS enumeration given an IPv6 take care of.

Following is the dnsdict6 command finish consequence:

Route Mapping the purpose

Route mapping was initially used as a diagnostic software program meaning which you could sight the route that an IP packet follows from one host to subsequent. Using the time to remain (TTL) self-discipline in an IP packet, each hop from one stage to the next elicits an ICMP TIME_EXCEEDED message from the receiving router, decrementing the price throughout the TTL space by 1. The packets rely the number of hops and the route taken.

From an ethical hacker or penetration tester's viewpoint, the traceroute data yields the subsequent needed data:

  • Exact path between attacker and purpose.

  • Options relating to the neighborhood's exterior topology.

  • Identification of accessing administration devices (firewalls and packet-filtering routers) that could possibly be filtering assault guests.

  • When neighborhood is misconfigured, it could possibly be doable to find out inside addressing.

In Kali Linux traceroute is a command-line program that makes use of ICMP packets for route mapping whereas in Dwelling home windows, this method is tracert.

You'll discover most hops filtered data is confirmed as * * * everytime you launch command to get knowledge. As you can see throughout the following screenshot:

If the similar request was run using tracert from the Dwelling home windows command line, we might see the subsequent:

Not solely will we get your complete path, nevertheless we're in a position to clearly see that www.google.com is resolving to a barely fully totally different IP take care of, indicating that load balancers are in affect. You'll confirm this by using Kali's lbd script. Though, this train may be logged by purpose.

Trigger behind the fully totally different path information confirmed by traceroute in Kali Linux is that, traceroute used UDP datagrams by default whereas Dwelling home windows tracert used ICMP echo request (ICMP type eight). Subsequently, when ending a traceroute using Kali devices, you have to to make use of numerous protocols to have the ability to obtain in all probability probably the most full path and to bypass packet- filtering models.

Kali affords the subsequent devices for ending route traces:

  • Hping3

  • Intrace

  • Trace6


hping3 is useful gizmo due to the administration it gives over packet type, provide packet, trip spot packet and DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux. As an example, Google does not allow ping requests. Nevertheless, it is attainable to ping the server whenever you ship packet as a TCP SYN request.

Throughout the following occasion, ethical hacker makes an attempt to ping Google from Kali Linux command line. The returned data detects that www.google.com is an unknown host. Google is clearly blocking ICMP-primarily primarily based ping directions. Nevertheless, subsequent command invokes hping3, instructing it to do the subsequent:

  • Ship ping-like command to Google using TCP with SYN flag set (-S).

  • Direct the packet to port eighty; respected requests of this kind aren't usually blocked (- p eighty).

  • Set a rely of sending three packets to the purpose (-c three).

Following screenshot explains the above course of:

The hping3 command effectively identifies that the purpose is on-line, and offers some fundamental routing info. I hope you will have pretty theoretical and wise experience with DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux. For basic footprinting or data gathering with Recon-ng Framework I counsel you to be taught this updated article.Thanks for finding out. How to use Metasploit for Post-Exploitation? and Top 8 Stealth Scanning Strategies of Kali Linux



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My Hack Stuff: DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux
DNS Reconnaissance, Route Mapping with Kali Linux
My Hack Stuff
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